COSC 4330: Operating Systems
Exam #1 Sample
11:30am-1:00pm, February 27, 2001
Student Name:
Social Security Number:
Consider the following code for multiplying matrices A and B:
for i := 1 to n do
for j := 1 to n do
begin
C[i,j] := 0;
for k := 1 to n do
C[i,j] := C[i,j] + A[i,k] * B[k,j]
end;
Suppose n = 2. Rewrite the code with "cobegin" and "coend"
(which allow parallel/concurrent operations)
to minimize the number of sequential operations.
(10 points)
In class, we discussed a simple buffer allocation problem with
semaphores.
Here, we have circular buffers of size n.
The buffers are numbered from 0 to n-1, so the buffer following
buffer n-1 is 0.
Solve the following synchronization problem with semaphores and
wait/signal operations.
There are two processes: producer (repeatedly writes to buffers,
one at a time)
and consumer (repeatedly reads from buffers, one at a time).
Initially the buffers are empty.
Reading and writing start from buffer 0, then 1,2,...,n-1,0,1...
Reading a buffer makes it empty.
The consumer cannot read an empty buffer.
The producer cannot write to an occupied buffer.
(10 points) Draw the state diagram for a process, and
label the states and transitions.
(15 points)
In class, you learned about earliest-deadline-first (ED) scheduling.
There is another real-time scheduling strategy called least-laxity-first
(LL), which schedules the process with the smallest laxity first.
Laxity = deadline - computation time.
Is LL better, same, or worse than ED in terms of its ability to
meet processes' deadlines?
Justify your answer.
If ED and LL perform equally well,
show that you can always change a ED-schedule
(meeting all deadlines) to a LL-schedule,
and vice versa.
Otherwise, show that one scheduler can meet deadlines of a set of
processes but the other cannot.
(20 points) Consider the following set of processes,
with the length of the CPU-burst time given in milliseconds:
Process Computation (Burst) Time Deadline Priority
p0 14 20 2
p1 3 10 5
p2 6 25 4
p3 1 5 3
p4 8 15 1 (highest)
The processes are assumed to have arrived in the order p0, p1, p2, p3, p4,
all at time 0.
(a) Draw five Gantt charts illustrating the execution of these processes
using FCFS, ED, SPF, a nonpreemptive priority (a smaller priority number
implies higher priority), and RR (quantum = 1) scheduling.
(b) What is the turnaround time of each process for each of the
scheduling algorithms in part a?
(c) What is the waiting time of each process for each of the scheduling
algorithms in part a?
(d) Which of the schedules in part a results in the minimal waiting time
(over all processes)?
(10 points) Consider the following program segments for two different
processes executing concurrently,
where A and B are not shared variables, but X starts at zero and is a
shared variable.
process 1:
for a := 1 to 5 do
x := x + 2;
process 2:
for b := 1 to 5 do
x := x + 2;
If these two processes execute only once at any speed,
what are the possible resulting values of x?
Explain your answers.
(10 points)
Suppose you cannot use any loop constructs (such as for, do, while, etc).
You may use "if, else".
Write a C program using fork()
to print the first 10 even numbers, starting with 0.
These numbers do not have to be printed in order.
Each process can either print nothing or only one number.
You cannot (and do not need to) use Unix semaphores.